The papers in this volume were presented at the Twelfth International NATO Workshop which was held in Dresden, Germany on 18-22 June 1995 at the Kempinski Taschenbergpalais, a Baroque palace built by Augustus the Strong for his mistress Countess Cosel. The palace was destroyed by bombing in the final days of World War II and is now enjoying a new life as a fine hotel. The rebuilding of the Taschenbergpalais, according to the original plans of the architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, is a symbol of the rebuilding of East Germany and the unification of not only Germany but also Europe. The rebuilt palace offered an elegant and well-equipped center for our discussions on "The New NATO--Building Stability, Democracy, and Peace Through Cooperation."
The views that are expressed in this volume are presented, in many cases, on an entirely personal basis. Therefore, they may not reflect the positions of their authors' organizations or governments.
With the attendance of senior political and military representatives from over thirty countries, participation at this year's NATO Workshop was broader than ever before. For the first time, Willy Claes participated in his new role as NATO Secretary General. Supreme Allied Commander Europe General George Joulwan kindly agreed to serve again as the Workshop's Honorary General Chairman, continuing a tradition established by his predecessor as SACEUR, General John Shalikashvili. When General Joulwan was absent from the Workshop, DSACEUR General Sir Jeremy Mackenzie and DCINCENT Air Chief Marshal Sir Michael Stear helped lead the Workshop sessions. Among other senior military participants were Chairman of the NATO Military Committee Field Marshal Sir Richard Vincent, CINCSOUTH Admiral Leighton W. Smith, CINCENT General Helge Hansen, CINCNW Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Johns, and CINCUSAFE General James Jamerson. In addition to General Klaus Naumann, the Chief of Defense of Germany, Denmark was represented by its Chief of Defense General Jørgen Lyng. Lieutenant General Sven-Åke Jansson, Commander-in-Chief of the Southern Region, represented Sweden, while Lieutenant General Matti Kopra, Chief of Defense Staff, represented Finland. NATO's Military Representatives to the NATO Military Committee played an important role, as did the Head of the French Military Mission to NATO and the representatives of SACEUR and Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic.
We were honored by the involvement for the second time of Prime Minister Tiit Vähi of Estonia, and by the participation of the defense and foreign ministers of a number of countries: Foreign Minister Valdis Birkavs of Latvia, Defense Minister Linas Linkevicius of Lithuania, Foreign Minister and Minister of State Teodor Melescanu of Romania, Defense Minister Zbigniew Okonski of Poland, Defense Minister Andrus Öövel of Estonia, Defense Minister Volker Rühe of Germany, Foreign Minister Juraj Schenk of the Slovak Republic, Vice Foreign Minister Nikolai Afanassievsky of the Russian Federation, Vice Foreign Minister Stanimir Alexandrov of Bulgaria, Under Secretary of State Jaako Blomberg of Finland, State Secretary Andrzej Karkoszka of Poland, State Secretary J. C. Gmelich Meijling of the Ministry of Defense of Netherlands, State Secretary Mircea Pascu, First Deputy Minister of Defense Dr. Jiri Pospísil, Undersecretary Stefano Silvestri of the Ministry of Defense of Italy, State Secretary Ferenc Somogyi of Hungary, U.K. Second Permanent Undersecretary of State Mr. J. M. Stewart, First Vice Foreign Minister Tarasyuk of Ukraine, and First Vice Minister Alexandr Vondra of the Czech Republic. By Ambassador to the NACC Uladzimer A. Labounov, Belarus was represented at the NATO Workshop for the first time. The political dimension of the Workshop was strengthened by Ambassadors of other NACC countries as well as Ambassadors to NATO of Germany, Iceland, and the United States.
A meeting two years ago between German Chief of Defense General Klaus Naumann and Dr. Johann Schäffler, Executive Advisor to the President of Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, was an initial spark that led to the German government's invitation to hold the Workshop in Dresden. SHAPE's then-Chief of Staff General J.B. Davis also supported the choice of Germany. At last year's NATO Workshop, Lieutenant General Jörn Söder formally invited the Workshop to Dresden on behalf of General Naumann and Defense Minister Volker Rühe. Since that moment, Germany's support for the Workshop has been extraordinary. General Naumann welcomed us with warmth to the Workshop, and our patron, Defense Minister Rühe, hosted a delightful dinner. State Secretary Jörg Schönbohm, whose contributions as a member of the Workshop Board of Advisors were especially appreciated, also represented the German government. Dr. Kurt Biedenkopf, Minister-President of the Free State of Saxony, greeted us with a reception at the Dresden Stadtschloss, while Lord Mayor Herbert Wagner hosted a memorable ceremony at the Dresden Rathaus, the signing of the Golden Book by NATO Secretary General Willy Claes and General George Joulwan in the presence of General Naumann. We also appreciated the participation of Germany's Ambassador to NATO Dr. Hermann Freiherr von Richthofen and Lieutenant General Klaus Wiesmann, Germany's Military Representative to the NATO Military Committee and his predecessor, Lieutenant General Söder. Among German officials serving in senior NATO roles, SHAPE Chief of Staff General Peter Carstens and the Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Central Europe General Helge Hansen were especially helpful. The large group of senior NATO officials and military commanders at Brussels appreciated the Luftwaffe aircraft that carried them to Dresden. The Luftwaffe also provide special air transportation for the NATO Secretary General so that he could give the opening dinner address.
The German Ministry of Defense Protokoll Office was extremely helpful with the planning and organization of the event. Drawing partly on a cadre of officers who had helped organize other high-level meetings in Germany, the Protokoll Office led by Colonel Jan Freiherr von Recum, Lieutenant Colonel Gerhard Leymann, and Lieutenant Colonel Heinz-Joachim Neumann assembled a highly professional and dedicated support team including Lieutenant Colonel Werner Schroth, Captain Jörg Schneider, Captain Erich Reichart, Sergeant Major Udo Lindlein, and Staff Sergeant Wilfried Schreiner. Lieutenant Colonel Norbert Gleiß, arranged the spouses' program, with its appealing visits to the Dresden Royal Palace Quarter, the Hofkirche, Italienisches Dörfchen, Semper Opera House, the renowned porcelain factory of Meissen, Schloss Moritzburg, and Schloss Pillnitz. We would also like to thank Mrs. Ursula Albrecht, protocol specialist, and Sailor Thomas Marks for their assistance. The military physicians Dr. Birgit Rompf and Dr. Michael Bruder provided us with excellent care. Lieutenant Colonel Wolfgang Schneider, Lieutenant Colonel Ernst-Otto Berk, and Colonel Wolf-Dieter Skodowski from the office of the Chief of Defense were especially active in various important phases of planning. We appreciate the loan of the cover photograph for this volume by the Zwinger Museum, as well as the loan of historical military artifacts for display at the Workshop by the Militärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr Dresden. Security was provided by the Saxonian Ministry of Interior and included Kriminalhauptkommissar Graser, Polizeihauptkommissar Langguth, Polizeihauptwachtmeister Kautzner, Polizeioberrat Siegftried Wolf, Polizeirat Andreas Wunderlich, Kriminalhauptkommissar Reinhold Löwe, and Mr. Stiller. Among those serving as drivers were Hans Gummersbac, Uwe Masachner, Walter Hoffmann, Klaus Pommerening, Karl-Heinz Bürger, Werner Reinhard, Frank Bräuer, Gerhard Sonntag, Michael König, and Sergeant Major Sand.
The NATO Workshop series, which is now in its thirteenth year, has benefitted from the continued organizational and financial support of many organizations including: Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Alenia a Finmeccanica S.p.A. Company, Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I), Association of the United States Army, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, The Boeing Company, Bofors, British Aerospace Plc, Canadian Armed Forces, Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, Defense Nuclear Agency, E-Systems Inc., Georgia Institute of Technology, Hughes Aircraft Company, MATRA Defense Espace, MITRE Corporation, National Defense University, Net Assessment, Northrop-Grumman, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, TERMA Elektronik AS, Government of Denmark, Government of Greece, Government of Hungary, Government of the Netherlands, Government of Norway, Government of Portugal, Italian Ministry of Defense, and Associate Sponsor: Raytheon.
The NATO Workshop Advisory Board, together with the sponsoring organizations and the Workshop chairmen, have shared their wisdom and provided leadership:
Alenia a Finmeccanica S.p.A. Company has been a longstanding supporter of the Workshop series. We especially appreciate the efforts of President Fausto Cereti, who has served on our Advisory Board since the Orta San Giulio Workshop in 1990, Alenia's President and COO Giorgio Zappa, Director of Government and Public Administration Affairs Colonel Aldo Ferraguto, and all the others at Alenia who have long spearheaded and encouraged senior Italian military and government participation in the Workshop.
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense Barry Horton III not only coordinated much of the United States C3I and DOD involvement but also chaired Ambassador Robert Hunter's session in Dresden. Salvatore Manno also contributed to the C3I dimension of the Workshop. We greatly appreciated their sending Tamara Mitchem to work as part of the Workshop staff.
At the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, we appreciate the many contributions of Colonel Katherine J. Ward, Director of the Political-Military Assessment Division J-8, and Technical Director Vince Roske.
Lieutenant General Malcolm R. O'Neill, Director of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and Deputy for Strategic Relations Dr. J. David Martin arranged for Italian Undersecretary of Defense Stefano Silvestri's address on defenses against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. We enjoyed our work with Colonel (S) David Svetz, Brenda Callahan, and Kitty Stepp, as well as the contributions to the Workshop discussions by former SDIO Director Ambassador Henry Cooper.
The Boeing Company was represented by Gordon Lynch, a dynamic member of the Advisory Board, as well as Thomas M. Brennan. We also appreciated the help of C. G. Jerry King, President of Boeing Defense and Space Group. Boeing generously sent Michele Soukin to help our Workshop staff in Dresden.
We would like to thank Börje Johanson and Egon Linderoth of Bofors who have sparked interest among Scandinavian countires in the NATO Workshop; we look forward to the continued participation by Börje Johanson in his new role as Vice President of Bofors's parent company, Celsius Industrier.
The contributions of British Aerospace have always been remarkable. We appreciate the personal support of its Chief Executive Officer R.H. Evans, while Air Chief Marshal Sir David Evans has been a principal advisor to the Workshop for the last eight years.
Vice Admiral Robert George, Canadian Military Representative to the NATO Military Committee, arranged for Canadian air transportation to bring NATO and NACC officials to the Budapest Workshop and has continued his support by permitting Manon Van der Horden, a member of his staff, to help us in Dresden.
Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG offered its support and enhanced the industrial dimension of the Workshop. The Chief Financial Officer Dr. Wolfgang Piller presented a stimulating address at the Workshop and contributed to the Workshop Proceedings. We also appreciate the help of Dr. Thomas Enders, who arranged DASA's participation this year, Dr. Manfred Bischoff, President of DASA, and of course Dr. Johann Schäffler who, together with General Naumann, conceived the idea of the Dresden NATO Workshop. Dr. Schäffler's secretary, Mrs. Siewert, was unusually courteous and helpful. We especially appreciate the personal support of former Daimler-Benz Chairman Edzard Reuter.
This was the ninth Workshop in which the Defense Nuclear Agency has participated, and the fourth year in which Major General Kenneth Hagemann, Director of the DNA, has sponsored and chaired a session. This year's session included presentations by Slovakian Foreign Minister Juraj Schenk and by Hungarian Foreign Minister Ferenc Somogyi on their views on Partnership for Peace. Rear Admiral D.A. Weiss, the Agency's Director for Operations, was responsible for much of the planning, and Major General Randall Peat of the Field Office contributed to the discussions at the Workshop. Other important DNA assistance came from Lieutenant Commander Peter Webb and William Daitch, our principal contact point at DNA, and, finally, DNA's new director, Major General Major General Gary L. Curtin.
We appreciate the participation of Brigadier General Robert Norman of E-Systems Inc., as well as that of Rucj Uffelman, our principal contact at E-Systems, Inc. for many years. This year we appreciate the participation for the first time of Mike McMillan and the support of Dr. J. R. Collins and David J. Mathews, III.
The Georgia Institue of Technology provided guidance in the academic and research area as the Workshop's principal university sponsor. Brigadier General James Allen and former President Dr. Patrick Crecine joined us for the discussions in Dresden. Professor Michael Salomone, Dr. Daniel Papp, and President Dr. Wayne Clough offered their advice, assistance, and support.
The Hughes Aircraft Company lent a hand during many phases of the Workshop's preparation. We would like to express our thanks to President John C. Weaver, Staff Vice President Christian M. Shore, as well as Louis H. Kurkijan, Allan E. Cook, and W. R. Frederick of Hughes Europe and our key point of contact there, John D. Largent.
We are grateful to MATRA Defense Espace for its support. In particular, we would like to thank the senior Vice President, François Heisbourg, who chaired the session in which Russian Vice Foreign Minister Nikolai Afanassievsky addressed the participants. Mr. Heisbourg has also contributed to the Workshop Proceedings.
With the continued assistance of Vice President John Quilty, MITRE Corporation has directed our attention to important command and control issues, and we greatly appreciate their representation at the Workshop by Dr. Stuart Starr.
The contributions of Lieutenant General Ervin J. Rokke, President of the National Defense University, as well as for President Lieutenant General Paul G. Cerjan, Dr. Stuart Johnson, Colonel Robert Clark, Mr. Gary Glovinsky, Ms. Carol Steiner, and Ms. Taylor were vital since NDU has a very special role as a university within the United States Department of Defense.
Director of Net Assessment Andrew Marshall played a key role as he has since the first Workshop more than a decade ago. Glenna Hughes of his office arranged for the necessary publication approvals and helped smooth the administration of our contract.
It is our good fortune to obtain the support of Northrop Grumman and the advice of CEO Kent Kresa, Corporate Vice President William James, Harry Pearce, Thomas Darcy, and Rich Milburn who participated as U.S. Chairman of the NATO Industrial Advisory Group.
Dr. Donald Kendall and C.A. von Stackelberg of Raytheon have earned our gratitude. Their contributions have taken on special importance given Raytheon's recent acquisition of E-Systems.
We were also pleased to welcome the Danish firm, TERMA Elektronik AS, to the growing number of industrial companies who support the Workshop. Our thanks to Major General Ole Fogh who represented TERMA Elektronik AS for the first time this year.
A small, but effective international staff worked smoothly with their German colleagues to make the Workshop a very pleasant experience for everyone. This team included Minister Counselor Vernon Penner, Colonel Roger Rains, and Major Thomas Petzold of SHAPE. Together, they led a very well-organized and effective group from Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe which included Colonel Joerg Meyer-Ricks, Captain Jeff Malcolm, Sergeant Major Hans Dirks, Sergeant First Class Dana Davis, and Technical Sergeant Henry Floyd. Lieutenant Colonel Mac Coleman of SHAPE shared with us his expertise in the area. Lieutenant Colonel Eugene Moseley of the College of Aerospace Doctrine Research & Education provided us with immense assistance, especially in the financial planning area. Mr. Chris Prebensen, Director of Information at NATO Headquarters offered valuable suggestions concerning Workshop publications. We also enjoyed working with Lieutenant Colonel Rick Froh of the Office of the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee. In addition, Anne Baylon and Ania Garlitski of the Center for Strategic Decision Research were part of the remarkable staff whose members always worked past midnight in the days before the conference.
At Strategic Decisions Press, Anne Baylon's editing team of Carol Whitely, Alice Kleeman, and Ania Garlitski put the book in final form. Mary Wu, now in her second year at Stanford University Law School, and Jackie Baum of the Ultimate Word Service also contributed. Charles Arkebauer at The Typemasters in Palo Alto, California performed the Linotronic typesetting work. We especially appreciated the help of Mary Cotter of Scribner Graphic Press of Menlo Park, California which printed the book on its Heidelberg SORDZ and Heidelberg MOV presses.
Finally, we wish to thank representatvies of the sponsoring organizations and, of course, in Poland, Defense Minister Zbigniew Okonski, State Secretary Andrzej Karkoszka, Ambassador Andrzej Krzeczunowicz, Advisor Marek Krupinski, and Captain Jacek Stec for helping us begin preparations for the 1996 NATO Workshop in Warsaw, Poland.
Menlo Park, California
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