Istanbul '09 Workshop
Preface and Acknowledgements
Dr. Roger Weissinger-Baylon
Workshop Chairman and Founder
WORKSHOP PATRON AND SPECIAL ADDRESSES
Turkish Defense Minister Vecdi Gönül’s Patronage of the 26th International Workshop. At the invitation of Turkish Defense Minister Vecdi Gönül, this year’s 26th International Workshop on Global Security took place in Istanbul, Turkey on 25-28 June 2009. We are deeply grateful for Minister Gönül’s outstanding support of the workshop in his role as patron and key opening speaker. Minister Gönül first attended the workshop series in Berlin, Germany in 2004 and we would like to warmly thank him for his numerous contributions since then.
Special Addresses of the 26th International Workshop. We would also like to thank some of the principal speakers of the workshop, including Greek Defense Minister Evangelos Meimarakis, Dutch Defense Minister Eimert van Middelkoop, Portuguese Defense Minister Prof. Dr. Nuno Severiano Teixeira, and Georgian Vice Prime Minister Giorgi Baramidze. In addition, we greatly appreciate the presentations by Georgian Defense Minister Vasil Sikharulidze, Slovenian Defense Minister Dr. Ljubica Jelusic, Montenegrin Defense Minister Boro Vučinić, and Latvian Defense Minister Imants Liegis centered around the theme of “Security Challenges from the Baltic to the Black Sea.” Estonian Defense Minister Jaak Aaviksoo also gave a much-applauded closing address during the final dinner held in the courtyard of the Archaeological Museum at Topkapi Palace.
Çırağan Palace. Defense Minister Gönül hosted a workshop opening reception and dinner on 25 June at the Çırağan Palace, a beautiful Ottoman imperial palace on the shores of the Bosphorus which also briefly served as the site of the Turkish Parliament. A special performance of the Mehter military marching band, whose origins date back to the 13th Century, rounded out the evening.
Istanbul Strait Boat Cruise and Archaeological Museum at Topkapi Palace. On the evening of 26 June, workshop participants enjoyed a reception and dinner held aboard a boat cruising the Bosphorus strait, which separates the European and Asian parts of Istanbul, while on 27 June a closing reception and dinner took place at the Archaeological Museum in Topkapi Palace. It also included a private visit of the museum’s extensive collections of Turkish, Hellenistic, and Roman artifacts. Some of the museum’s most famous pieces include the Alexander Sarcophagus, adorned with carvings of Alexander the Great, and the Treaty of Kadesh, the world’s oldest peace treaty which was signed in 1258 BC between the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II and the Hittite King Hattusilis III.
Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, Post-Workshop Events, and Ceylan Intercontinental Hotel. For early arriving participants, there was a reception and private visit on 24 June at the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, which is housed in the former palace of Ibrahim Pasha, the Grand Vizir of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, and directly overlooks the Blue Mosque and ancient Roman hippodrome. The museum possesses an important collection of ancient carpets, tiles, and calligraphy. Those staying on after the workshop were able to take advantage of a post-workshop visit on 28 June to Topkapi Palace, the primary residence of the Ottoman sultans from 1465-1856. Its collections include the famous Topkapi dagger and Spoonmaker’s Diamond as well as the cloak and sword of the prophet Mohammed. Finally, we would like to thank the Ceylan Intercontinental Hotel, where all of the workshop sessions took place, for their excellent assistance.
We would like to gratefully acknowledge the principal sponsors of the 26th International Workshop:
- The Turkish Ministry of Defense, with the patronage of Defense Minister Vecdi Gönül
- The United States Department of Defense (Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics; Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks and Information Integration; Office of the Director of Net Assessment in the Office of the Secretary of Defense; Defense Threat Reduction Agency)
- Microsoft Corporation
- Northrop Grumman Corporation
- Center for Strategic Decision Research, which instituted the workshop series and has presented workshops annually for 26 years.
Turkish Defense Ministry Organizing Committee. The contributions of the Turkish Defense Ministry, which not only provided financial support but also allocated a large team to work on the logistical arrangements, were tremendous. We would like to especially thank Rear Admiral Nadir Hakan Eraydin, Chief of Plans and Policy, who was the point of contact for our collaboration. In addition, Colonel Muhterem Karatas and Colonel Oktay Şenyiğit played major roles in the organization, and Major Soydan Görgülü also put in long hours in the months leading up to the conference to arrange many of the practical details.
Other members of the Turkish Defense Ministry involved in the planning include Major Hamdi Abanoz, Major İmdat Çeçeli, Master Sergeant Ali Acar, and Master Sergeant Hakan Naroglu. Alpay Danişman-a Bilateral Relations Specialist- as well as Seda Özel Gürkan, Elçin Şanli, Taceddin Erbaş, and Perihan Dinç Meriç-all Political Affairs Specialists-worked especially hard on the Çırağan Palace opening dinner and on the spouses’ program. We also appreciate the efforts of Perihan Atalay and Levent Gümüşoğlu, who served as interpreters, as well as Zeynep Güzelcan, Fatih Subaşı, and Erol Mercan, who was especially helpful in administering the budget.
Turkish speakers and participants. Turkey also contributed a number of important workshop participants, including Major General Mehmet Çetin, Head of the International Security and Foreign Relations Division at the Turkish General Staff; Lieutenant General Mehmet Veysi Ağar, the Turkish Military Representative to NATO; Hikmet Çetin, a former Foreign Minister; Colonel Erdal Dodurga and Colonel Adil Ayaz from the Defense Ministry. We would also like to thank Professor İlber Ortaylı, Director of the Topkapi Palace Museum, for his wonderful welcoming toast on Turkey’s diverse cultural history at the Çırağan Palace opening dinner. In addition, we were delighted to have representatives of Turkish industry, including Akin Duman, General Manager of TEI; Fuat Akçayöz, Group President of ASELSAN; General Ünal Önsipahioğlu, General Manager of MKEK; and Kaya Yazgan, Secretary General of SASAD.
Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics). Alfred Volkman, Director for International Cooperation in the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for AT&L, has been a sponsor of the workshop for close to 10 years now as well as a key advisor. He chaired an outstanding panel on promoting international cooperation in Afghanistan this year. We also appreciate the many efforts of Roger Golden, Colonel Mark Price, and Rita Bidlack in support of the workshop over the years.
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Networks and Information Integration). We are grateful for the support of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for NII, who was represented by Robert Lentz, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Cyber, Information, and Identity Assurance, a longtime contributor to the workshop. We also appreciate the participation and involvement of former Assistant Secretary of Defense for NII John Grimes. Their efforts have highlighted the importance of network-centric operations in the security arena and discussions on these topics have become an important centerpiece of the workshop series.
Office of the Director of Net Assessment. Andrew Marshall, Director of Net Assessment in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, has sponsored the workshop series from the time it was first founded 26 years ago. We are extremely grateful for his many years of loyal support, as well as for the important advisory role which he has played in the evolution of the workshop series. In addition, Rebecca Bash has overseen the administration of the project for many years and we are delighted that she was able to attend the workshop again this year for the second time.
Defense Threat Reduction Agency. DTRA has been a sponsor of the workshop for some 25 years, dating back to the time when they were known as the Defense Nuclear Agency. Major General Randy E. Manner, Deputy Director of the agency, gave us valuable support and planning advice. We also appreciate the hard work of Colonel Bob Dickey, Senior Strategic Planner-Operations Enterprise, who has coordinated DTRA’s participation as well as attended the workshop for many years now.
Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft was a principal sponsor for the fourth time. We appreciate the many efforts of Tim Bloechl, Managing Director, Worldwide Public Safety & National Security, on behalf of the workshop as well as his important address on cyber strategies for military operations. We were also delighted to welcome back General Mike McDuffie, Vice President, U.S. Public Sector Services; Daniel Maly, Director, Government, Central & Eastern Europe; Wayne Phillips, Director, Global Defence Solutions, as well as to have the participation of Bert Oltmans, Director, Defense, Middle East & Africa and Colonel Robert Kosla, Director, Defense, Central & Eastern Europe.
Northrop Grumman. Northrop Grumman was a principal sponsor for the sixth time this year and has been a sponsor for some 15 years in all. We appreciate the participation of Northrop Grumman executives William Ennis, Director, International Business Development; James Heath, President, Electronic Systems International; Timothy Shephard, Vice President, Europe, NATO, Israel & the Americas, ESI, as well as their advice. They also played a major role in developing an excellent panel on NATO transformation and in expanding the number of senior military participants.
Lockheed Martin Corporation. We would also like to thank Lockheed Martin for its many years of sponsorship. Dr. Scott Harris, President, Continental Europe, has been a long-term contributor to the workshop, both as a speaker and as a participant. We appreciate his excellent presentation dicussing defense industry perspectives on technology and consolidation this year.
European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company. EADS has been a supporter of the workshop for many years. Thomas Homberg, Corporate Vice President, Head of Strategic Coordination; Dr. Holger Mey, Vice President, Defense & Security Systems; and Admiral Jean Betermier, Senior Advisor to the CEO, were all able to attend again this year. We appreciate their advice in the workshop planning process, and would also like to thank Dr. Stefan Zoller for his long interest and support.
Cisco. We are very happy that Cisco was able to become a sponsor of the workshop for the first time this year. The company was represented by Terrence C. Morgan, who is Director, Net-Centric Strategies of the Global Government Solutions Group at Cisco as well as Chairman of the Executive Council of the Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium.
Thales. Thales has also been a long-term supporter. We would like to thank Edgar Buckley, Senior Vice President, for his workshop address and participation. He is also a former NATO Assistant Secretary General and is therefore able to bring both political and business perspectives to the discussions.
URS Corporation, EG&G Division. URS Corporation’s EG&G Division was as a sponsor of the workshop for the first time this year. We were delighted to have the participation of David Swindle, Executive Vice President, EG&G Division.
MITRE Corporation. We would like to thank MITRE for its sponsorship of the workshop over the past two decades. Raymond Haller, Senior Vice President, C2C, has attended for a number of years now, and we also appreciate the participation of Cynthia Sturm, Head of European Operations, this year.
General Dynamics. We are grateful for the continued sponsorship and participation of General Dynamics, which was represented once again by William Schmieder, Vice President, International Business Development, and General George Joulwan, former Supreme Allied Commander Europe. While at NATO, General Joulwan served as the Honorary General Chairman of the workshop from 1994-1997 and has remained a pillar of the conference since then.
University of Tennessee, National Defense Business Institute. The University of Tennessee has become a sponsor for the first time this year and was represented by J. David Patterson, Executive Director, National Defense Business Institute.
PATRONS, ADVISORS, AND PARTICIPANTS
Workshop Patrons, Honorary Chairmen, and Keynote Speakers. We greatly appreciate the support of our past and present workshop patrons and general chairmen:
His Excellency Vecdi Gönül, Minister of Defense of Turkey (Workshop Patron, 2009; Keynote 2009, 2008, 2004)
His Excellency Ignazio La Russa, Minister of Defense of Italy (Workshop Patron, Keynote Speaker, 2008)
His Excellency Hervé Morin, Minister of Defense of France (Workshop Patron, 2007)
His Excellency Franz Josef Jung, Minister of Defense of Germany (Workshop Patron, Keynote Speaker, 2006)
Her Excellency Michèle Alliot-Marie, Minister of Defense of France (Workshop Patron, 2005, 2007; Keynote, 2005)
His Excellency Peter Struck, Minister of Defense of Germany (Keynote Speaker, 2004)
His Excellency Rudolf Scharping, Minister of Defense of Germany (Workshop Patron, Keynote Speaker, 2002, 2000)
His Excellency Jan Trøjborg, Minister of Defense of Denmark (Workshop Patron, 2001)
His Excellency Arpád Göncz, President of Hungary (Workshop Patron, Keynote Speaker, 1999)
His Excellency Dr. Werner Fasslabend, Minister of Defense of Austria (Workshop Patron, Keynote Speaker, 1998)
His Excellency Václav Havel, President of the Czech Republic (Workshop Patron, 1997; Keynote Speaker, 1997, 1996)
His Excellency Aleksander Kwaniewski, President of Poland (Workshop Patron, 1996; Keynote Speaker, 2002, 2000, 1998, 1997, 1996)
His Excellency Volker Rühe, Minister of Defense of Germany (Workshop Patron, 1995)
Admiral Giampaolo Di Paola, Chairman of NATO Milit. Committee (Honorary Chairman, Keynote Speaker, 2008)
General Vincenzo Camporini, Chief of General Staff of Italy (Honorary Chairman, Keynote Speaker, 2008)
General James Jones, Supreme Allied Commander Europe (Keynote Speaker, 2007, 2006, 2004)
General Henri Bentégeat, Chair of EU Military Committee, former Chief of General Staff of France (Keynote, 2007)
General George Joulwan, Supreme Allied Commander Europe (Honorary General Chairman, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994)
General John Shalikashvili, Supreme Allied Commander Europe (Keynote Speaker, 1993)
Advisory Board. Our Board of Advisors, which has provided excellent input in helping to develop the workshop agenda over the years, includes:
His Excellency Valdas Adamkus, former President of Lithuania
Ing. Giovanni Bertolone, CEO, Alenia Aeronautica S.p.A.
Admiral Jean Betermier, Senior Advisor to the CEO, EADS
Mr. Tim Bloechl, Managing Director, Worldwide Public Safety and National Security, Microsoft
Admiral Giampaolo Di Paola, Chairman of NATO Military Committee, Former Italian Chief of Staff
His Excellency Mikulas Dzurinda, Former Prime Minister of Slovakia
Sir Stewart Eldon KCMG OBE, United Kingdom Permanent Representative on the North Atlantic Council
The Honorable Gordon England, Former United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
His Excellency Dr. Werner Fasslabend, Former Minister of Defense of Austria
His Excellency Vecdi Gönül, Defense Minister of Turkey
General George A. Joulwan (Ret.), Former Supreme Allied Commander, Europe
Ambassador Mahmoud Karem, Egyptian Ambassador to the EU
Ambassador Jaromir Novotný, Ambassador of the Czech Republic to Japan
Ambassador Marc Perrin de Brichambaut, Secretary General, OSCE
Dr. Andrey Piontkovskiy, Director, Strategic Studies Center, Moscow
Ing. Général Robert Ranquet, Special Advisor, Armament General Council
Vice Admiral Sanfelice di Monteforte, Former Italian Military Representative to NATO
His Excellency Borys Tarasyuk, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine
His Excellency Dr. Alexandr Vondra, Deputy Prime Minister of the Czech Republic
Ing. Dr. Giorgio Zappa, COO of Finmeccanica and Chairman, Alenia Aeronautica
Contributors of the 26th International Workshop. The workshop brought together contributors from some 30 countries and organizations, including representatives from the U.N., NATO, EU, and Mediterranean Dialogue:
His Excellency Jaak Aaviksoo, Estonian Minister of Defense
Ambassador Hassan Abouyoub, Ambassador-at-Large of the Kingdom of Morocco
Renée S. Acosta, President & CEO, Global Impact
Ambassador Nabeela Al-Mulla, Ambassador of Kuwait to Belgium and the EU
His Excellency Giorgi Baramidze, Vice Prime Minister of Georgia
Rear Admiral Gerald R. Beaman, Deputy Chief of Staff Operations, Allied Joint Force Command Naples
Tim Bloechl, Managing Director, Worldwide Public Safety & National Security, Microsoft Corporation
Dr. Edgar Buckley, Senior Vice President, Thales
General Vincenzo Camporini, Chief of General Staff of Italy
Ambassador Vladimir Chizhov, Russian Ambassador to the EU
Julius Coles, President and CEO, AFRICARE
Ambassador Jean-Jacques de Dardel, Swiss Ambassador to Belgium and to NATO
Elaine Dezenski, Managing Director, INTERPOL’s Global Security Initiative for the 21st Century
Ambassador Dumitru Sorin Ducaru, Romanian Permanent Representative to NATO
Dr. Shekhar Dutt, Indian Deputy National Security Advisor
Sir Stewart Eldon, KCMG OBE, British Ambassador to NATO
Assistant Secretary General Peter Flory, NATO Assistant General for Defense Investment
His Excellency Vecdi Gönül, Minister of Defense of Turkey
The Honorable John Grimes, U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense
Ambassador Abdullah Hussain Haroon, Pakistani Ambassador to the United Nations
Dr. Scott Harris, President, Continental Europe, Lockheed Martin
Thomas Homberg, Corporate Vice President, Head of EADS Strategic Coordination
Her Excellency Dr. Ljubica Jelusic, Minister of Defense of Slovenia
General George Joulwan, Former Supreme Allied Commander, Europe
Ambassador Dr. Mahmoud Karem, Egyptian Ambassador to Belgium and the EU
General Karl-Heinz Lather, Chief of Staff, SHAPE
Deputy Assistant Secretary Robert Lentz, U.S. Dep. Assistant Secretary (Cyber, Information, and Identity Assurance)
His Excellency Imants Liegis, Minister of Defense of Latvia
Ambassador Dr. Ahmad Masa’deh, Jordanian Ambassador to Belgium and the EU
Ambassador Robert McRae, Canadian Permanent Representative to NATO
His Excellency Evangelos Meimarakis, Minister of Defense of Greece
His Excellency Eimert van Middelkoop, Minister of Defense of the Netherlands
Terrence Morgan, Director, Net-Centric Strategies, Global Government Solutions Group, Cisco
Professor İlber Ortaylı, Director, Topkapi Palace Museum
J. David Patterson, Executive Director, National Defense Business Institute, University of Tennessee
Vice Admiral Ferdinando Sanfelice di Monteforte, Former Italian Military Representative to NATO
Director General Henri Serres, Director General for Information and Comm. Systems, French Defense Ministry
His Excellency Dr. Nuno Severiano Teixeira, Minister of Defense of Portugal
Timothy Shephard, Vice President, Europe, NATO, Israel and the Americas, Northrop Grumman ESI
His Excellency Vasil Sikharulidze, Minister of Defense of Georgia
Ambassador Zahir Tanin, Afghan Ambassador to the United Nations
Rabih Torbay, Senior Vice President for Programs, International Medical Corps
Lieutenant General Pascal Vinchon, French Military Representative to NATO
Alfred Volkman, Director for International Cooperation, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense
His Excellency Boro Vučinić, Minister of Defense of Montenegro
Dr. Roger Weissinger-Baylon, Workshop Chairman and Founder; Co-Director, Center for Strategic Decision Research
Dr. Linton Wells, National Defense University
Ambassador Bogusław W. Winid, Polish Permanent Representative to NATO
Admiral Luciano Zappata, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander, Transformation
Workshop International Staff. The Center for Strategic Decision Research (CSDR) workshop staff included Dr. Ania Garlitski, M.D., a cardiologist and Assistant Professor at Tufts-New England Medical Center, who started working with us more than 10 years ago when she was a student at Stanford and was responsible for coordinating many of the evening social events; Grace Wong, another Stanford graduate now working for CNN, who handled the greeting of VIPs; and Pinar Atayol, a graduate of Galatasaray University in Istanbul, who was in charge of negotiations with suppliers. Jean Lee, a graphic designer who also started working with CSDR soon after her Stanford graduation, was responsible for all of the workshop’s printing, graphics, and photography, including the cover design of this book. We also appreciate the dedicated work of Eugene Whitlock, J.D., a graduate of Stanford University and University of Michigan Law School, who was in charge of billing and contributed several photos in these proceedings. Caroline Baylon, an economics graduate of Stanford University, was the overall director of the workshop staff. Caroline has led the staff for the last five years and has contributed as a staff member for more than 13 years. CSDR Co-Director Anne D. Baylon, a graduate of the University of Paris Law School and a Master degree graduate of Stanford University, oversaw the coordination of the workshop as a whole.
Workshop Publications. Anne was also responsible for the editing of these Proceedings. As Head of Publications, Anne coordinated the editing process and the obtaining of publication approvals with the chapter authors. She gratefully acknowledges the assistance and contributions of Carol Whiteley and Caroline Baylon, who transcribed and copy edited a number of the chapters.